Photography is a popular hobby for many people because it can be done for fun, to document our lives and the places we go. However, it can even be an extraordinary profession if taken seriously. And part of taking it seriously is learning the basic concepts of photography that separate the professionals like Eugene Bernshtam from the amateurs. This article will explain some basic concepts that will get you started on the right track and capture the images you want.


ISO controls how sensitive the camera is to incoming light. The lower the number, the less sensitive it is, while higher numbers mean more sensitive. This is important because it allows you to control the brightness of your images, depending on the lighting conditions. For example, if you’re shooting in bright sunlight, you’ll want to use a low ISO so that the image doesn’t come out too bright or over-exposed. Conversely, if you’re shooting in a dark room, you’ll want to use a higher ISO so that the image doesn’t come out too dark or under-exposed.


A very important aspect of photography is metering, which means measuring how much light your camera’s sensor receives through the lens; or put simply- how it calculates the correct exposure value. There are three types of metering modes: matrix, center-weighted, and spot. Most modern cameras come with matrix metering as the default mode, but you can switch to the other two depending on the situation.

The most important thing to remember about metering is that it’s not always accurate, and sometimes you’ll need to override the meter’s reading by adjusting the exposure compensation.

Exposure Compensation

Before we jump into the explanation, let’s first define what “over or under-exposed” means. When an image is over-exposed, it might be too bright, while an image that’s under-exposed might be too dark. This can result in poor quality images where there’s not enough detail in the highlights or shadows or even complete loss of detail.

Exposure compensation is a way to adjust your camera’s metering so that it gives you a more accurate reading and prevents your images from being over or under-exposed. It works by adding or subtracting exposure values (EV) from the reading that the camera’s meter gives you. So, for example, if your image is coming out too bright, you can decrease the exposure compensation by 2 or 3 EV, and it will darken the image accordingly.


The aperture is a hole inside the lens that allows light to pass through to the sensor. It’s measured in f-stops; with one f-stop being the size of the aperture when it’s fully opened. If you know your cameras, it might be referring to them as “f/2.8” or “f/5.6”, where the numbers refer to the size of the hole relative to its maximum opening.

As you can imagine, the bigger the aperture, the more light that’s let in. So if you’re shooting in low-light conditions, you might want to use a large aperture (f/1.8 or f/2). However, this is where it starts getting complicated because the larger the aperture size, the shallower your depth of field will be.